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Six vacuum forming processes

Issuing time:2021-11-27 14:57

Vacuum forming process

Vacuum forming, also known as blister forming, is to fix thermoplastic plates and sheets on the mold, heat them to the softening temperature with a radiation heater, then extract the air between the plate and the mold with a vacuum pump, stick the plate to the mold cavity with the help of atmospheric pressure, and form the plastic parts with compressed air after cooling. The structure of vacuum forming equipment and mold is relatively simple, the shape of parts is clear, the production cost is low and the production efficiency is high. Generally, large, thin and deep plastic parts can be produced by vacuum molding. However, due to the limited pressure of vacuum forming, thick wall plastic parts can not be formed. The disadvantage of vacuum molding is that the wall thickness of molded plastic parts is uneven. When the concave convex shape of the die changes greatly and is close to each other, and the corner of the punch is an acute angle, the plastic part is easy to wrinkle, and the periphery of the plastic part needs to be corrected.


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Vacuum forming methods mainly include female die vacuum forming, male die vacuum forming, concave convex die vacuum forming, compressed air stretching vacuum forming, plunger stretching vacuum forming and vacuum forming with gas buffer device.

Vacuum forming of female die

Vacuum forming of female die is one of the most common and simple forming methods. During the molding process, the plate is fixed and sealed above the mold cavity, and the plate is heated by a heater above the plate until it softens.

The external surface dimension precision of plastic parts formed by female mold vacuum forming method is high, which is generally used for plastic parts with small forming depth. For deep plastic parts, especially small plastic parts, the bottom corner will be significantly thinner. Compared with the vacuum forming of the same number of punch, the vacuum forming of multi cavity die is more economical, because the spacing between the die and the cavity can be closer, and more plastic parts can be processed with the same area of plastic plate.

Double punch vacuum forming

Stamping vacuum forming. The clamped plastic plate is heated and softened by a heater; Then the softened plastic plate moves down and covers the punch; Finally, vacuumize the plastic plate and form it close to the punch. Because the cold punch first contacts with the plate in the forming process, the dimensional accuracy of the inner surface of the plastic parts is high, but the bottom is slightly thick, which is mostly used for thin-walled plastic parts with high convex shape.

Three concave convex molds are vacuum formed in turn.

The concave convex die is vacuum formed in turn. First, fasten the plastic plate on the die and heat it; After the plastic plate is softened, remove the heater, blow compressed air through the punch and vacuum the die frame to make the plastic plate bulge; Finally, the male mold is inserted downward into and extracted from the protruding plastic plate, and compressed air is introduced into the female mold frame to attach the plastic plate to the outer surface of the male mold for molding. In fact, this forming method is finally perforated vacuum forming. Because the softened plastic plate is blown to stretch and form, the wall thickness of the formed plastic part is relatively uniform, which can be used to mold deep cavity plastic parts.

Four compressed air drawing vacuum forming

The vacuum forming by compressed air drawing method is basically similar to the continuous vacuum forming by concave convex die. First, fix the plastic plate on the die and heat it with a heater; After the plastic plate is heated and softened, remove the heater, blow the plastic plate through the female die with compressed air, and then jack up the male die; Then stop blowing on the female die, vacuum the male die, and then stick the plastic plate on the male die to form.

Five plunger stretch vacuum forming

The plunger is vacuum formed. During forming, firstly, the plastic plate fixed on the die is heated to a softened state; Then remove the heater and push the plastic plate down with the plunger. At this time, the air in the female mold is compressed, and the softened plastic plate extends due to the thrust of the plunger and the movement of the air enclosed in the cavity. Then vacuum the female mold. This forming method makes the plastic plate elongate and the wall thickness deform evenly before forming. It is mainly used to form deep cavity plastic parts, but there are plunger marks on the plastic parts.

Intransitive verb vacuum forming with gas buffer

Gas buffered vacuum forming is the combination of plunger and compressed air. During forming, the plastic plate is heated and gently pressed against the die together with the frame, and then the compressed air is blown into the cavity of the die to blow the heated plastic plate to make the excess air escape from the gap between the plate and the die. The heated air is blown out from the upper surface of the plate through the hole of the plunger. At this time, the plate is between the two air buffer layers.

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